There are several team models that suggest that teams go through a number of stages on the way to becoming High Performing. The models are summarized in the table below:
If we focus on the Tuckman-Jensen model, the stages are:
This simple model has the virtue of revealing that teams are dynamic – they change over time – and a leader needs to respond with appropriate leader behaviours. In particular they are consistent with the leader being Directive and focusing on Performance at the beginning.
Lencioni adopts a slightly different approach to team development, identifying 5 Dysfunctions of Teams. I believe that our approach of focusing on Performance, People and Process will help you to avoid the 5 Dysfunctions. Nevertheless, since these dysfunctions are so common it may be useful to review them: forewarned is forearmed. Like a series of dominoes, each dysfunction gives rise to the next.
Lencioni suggests that the primary role of the leader in overcoming these dysfunctions is to lead by example and set the tone for the whole team. This includes being the first one to be vulnerable, encouraging debate and conflict, making responsibilities and deadlines clear, setting the team’s standards and being clear on the team’s results.
“Successful teamwork is not about mastering subtle, sophisticated theories, but rather about combining common sense with uncommon levels of discipline and persistence. Ironically, teams succeed because they are exceedingly human. By acknowledging the imperfections of their humanity, members of functional teams overcome the natural tendencies that make teamwork so elusive.”
Team development stages have been observed in research and many people will attest to having experienced these stages. But not every time – the stages are not inevitable. They don’t just happen; there are causes and these are addressed through the leader’s focus on Performance, People and Process,
I believe that the models are simplistic. It is unlikely that all team members are in the same place at the same time – context, history, existing relationships, team competences, are they in their comfort zone technically etc. Thus there is not one blanket approach to all team members; each team member needs to be managed differently, paying attention to each individual’s
“Don’t try to ape any leadership model or team, because there’s no one right style for leading a team.
There are many different ways to create the conditions for effectiveness, sustain them, and help teams take full advantage of them.
The best team leaders are like jazz players, improvising constantly as they go along.” 
 Patrick Lencioni, The Five Dysfunctions of a Team
 Professor J Richard Hackman